Gần đây, phiến quân ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and [Great] Syria) hoành hành ở Iraq và Syria. Vài ngày trước, ISIS tuyên bố lập nhà nước Hồi giáo cho vùng này, và từ caliphate tràn ngập báo chí tiếng Anh. Caliphate là lãnh thổ / vương quốc của một caliph, người được xem là kế vị Đấng Tiên Tri Muhammad để làm lãnh tụ Hồi giáo.
Xin trích giải thích về nghĩa và hàm ý của từ này từ vài bài về caliphate. Nên đọc trọn bài ở các đường dẫn.
The definition of caliphate is “government under a caliph.” A caliph is a spiritual leader of Islam who claims succession from Muhammad. The word stems from the Arabic khalifa meaning “successor.”
Historically, caliphates are governance under Islamic law, which calls for election of leadership under Sunni practice and selection from a group of imams in the Shia tradition. The rule of law by Islamic ethics is a common thread to the governance under of a caliphate. Caliphate rule was largely symbolic, the power of local sultans and rulers handling the day-to-day operations of government.
ISIS in Iraq: What is a caliphate?, CBC News, 30 June 2014
A caliphate, from the word “succession” in Arabic, is an Islamic state that has its roots in the seventh century immediately after the death of Muhammad.
“He was a prophet and he was also a political leader. So the idea of the caliphate was born on that basis,” says Noomane Raboudi, an assistant professor in the school of political studies at the University of Ottawa.
Four people — known as caliphs — succeeded Muhammad.
Chosen by “shura” — or consultation among Muslims — Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman and Ali led the community in its dramatic expansion from the Arabian Peninsula to rule over North Africa and the Middle East.
The Caliphate Fantasy, Op-ed của Khaleb Diab, The New York Times, 3 July 2014
The jihadist insurgent group ISIS, or as it now prefers to be called, the Islamic State, appears well on the road to achieving its stated goal: the restoration of the caliphate. The concept, which refers to an Islamic state presided over by a leader with both political and religious authority, dates from the various Muslim empires that followed the time of the Prophet Muhammad. From the seventh century onward, the caliph was, literally, his “successor.”
The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) is also commonly referred to as The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The acronym’s last letter is open to interpretation because the last word in Arabic, “al-Sham,” can mean the Levant, Syria or even Damascus in some instances.
Bài về hoạt động của ISIS gần đây: Phiến quân ISIS tàn bạo và cuồng tín hơn cả al-Qaeda